Over the last two decades, palm oil production has expanded more rapidly than almost any other agricultural commodity. Palm oil expansion in Indonesia and Malaysia is the leading cause of carbon dioxide emissions, rainforest destruction and human rights challenges.
Globally traded and highly versatile, the soybean is the world’s largest source of animal protein feed and the second largest source of vegetable oil. Climate change and deforestation are the most salient issues associated with soybean production.
Global demand for dairy is expected to increase by approximately 60 percent by 2050, driven by population growth and rising incomes. The greenhouse gas emissions from dairy production are significant – generated from crop production for animal feed, methane produced by cows digesting their feed and their manure.
The global pulp and paper industry uses around 40 percent of all wood harvested for industrial use. In some regions, expansion of harvesting and production of pulpwood threatens forests, increasing biodiversity losses, social conflict, water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions.
Sugarcane production has steadily increased over the past several decades, doubling over the last 20 years. Producing sugarcane places significant pressure on water supplies and leads to water pollution that impacts biodiversity and the functioning of healthy ecosystems.
Wheat is the most widely grown cereal crop, farmed on more acres than any another commercial crop. The use of irrigated water, perticides and fertilizer in wheat contribute to water scarcity and water pollution issues.